Deliberativna demokratija između moralizma i realizma

  • Andrija Šoć Istraživač saradnik, Institut za filozofiju, Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Srbija

Abstract

U ovom radu ću izložiti debatu između političkih moralista i političkih realista i pokušati da pokažem da je moguće naći srednje rešenje koje istovremeno zadovoljava osnovne zahteve oba pristupa a ne podleže prigovorima koji se upućuju i jednom i drugom stanovištu. U prvom delu izlažem stav koji dele i moralisti i realisti: da je osnovni izazov koji se pred jednu političku teoriju postavlja rešenje problema legitimnosti. Prvo skiciram Rolsov moralistički pristup, da bih potom prešao na realisičke kritike takvog moralizma. Uglavnom ću se držati jedne od najdetaljnije razrađenih novijih teorija – Slitove (Sleat) realističke teorije, mada će biti reči i o drugim sličnim razmatranjima. U drugom delu ukazujem na kritike koje bi se mogle uputiti realistima. One su u mnogome slične onim kritikama koje oni sami upućuju moralistima, a svode se na problem subdeterminacije odnosno nedovoljne određenosti političkog delovanja činjenicama. Kako realisti smatraju da je test održivosti jedne političke teorije njena primenljivost, njihova pozicija je utoliko posebno oslabljena jednom takvom kritikom. U trećem delu rada ukazujem na deliberativnu teoriju, koja može da odgovori i na realističke kritike – jer je svojim velikim delom okrenuta načinu na koji se stvari odvijaju u konkretnom političkom životu konkretnih društava – ali i na kritike upućene samim realistima, jer empirička istraživanja sugerišu konkretan put ka rešenju problema legitimnosti – podizanje kvaliteta deliberacije. Takođe, deliberativna teorija zadržava autonomne etičke vrednosti, iako to, za razliku od moralizma, ne čini narušavajući zahtev za autonomijom politike od etike, ekonomije i drugih disciplina. Stoga, na kraju rada, iznosim tvrdnju da takvu deliberativnu teoriju mogu prihvatiti i realisti i moralisti.

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Published
2016-12-25
How to Cite
ŠOĆ, Andrija. Deliberativna demokratija između moralizma i realizma. Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society, [S.l.], v. 27, n. 4, p. 920-937, dec. 2016. ISSN 2334-8577. Available at: <http://journal.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/index.php?journal=fid&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=470>. Date accessed: 23 sep. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.2298/FID1604920S.
Section
STUDIES AND ARTICLES