Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society <p>&nbsp;<em>Filozofija i društvo </em>/ <em>Philosophy and Society</em> is a peer reviewed, open access academic journal established in 1987 and published&nbsp;quarterly by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory</a>, University of Belgrade. The journal was founded by members of the Belgrade ‘Praxis School’. The journal strives to cover and present key tendencies of contemporary theory and, at the same time, to encourage research in studies of philosophy and the humanities. It promotes innovative and critical thinking, open and constructive debate, creating in this way a clear space for an ongoing dialogue about questions of intellectual and social reality within the international academic community.&nbsp;<em>Contributions of high quality</em> – regardless of their tradition, school of thought or disciplinary background – are welcome. The journal covers a wide breadth of philosophical and social questions that are theoretically orientated. In accordance with this, the editorial board equally values disciplinary and interdisciplinary oriented studies.</p> <p>The highest quality of editorial standard is ensured by the international membership and disciplinary expertise of the editorial board.</p> Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory, University of Belgrade, Serbia en-US Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society 0353-5738 <p>Articles published in the&nbsp;<em>Philosophy and Society</em>&nbsp;will be Open-Access articles distributed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License</a>.</p> Europe: The Space and Time of Reflection <p>Europe: The Space and Time of Reflection<br>On the Complutense Research Group La Europa de la Escritura</p> On the Complutense Research Group La Europa de la Escritura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 3 5 Representation, Reappropriation: The Body of the Image in the Mystical Text of Teresa of Avila <p>What follows is but the attempt to draw the lessons from the mystical and visionary text of Teresa of Ávila in order to consider today issues that concern us, questions that are asked of Aesthetics, and not only as theoretical discipline that theorises on the arts and considers the beautiful, but as a reflection on <em>aísthesis</em>, of sensitivity, of the sensitive edge exposed by a constituent relationship which installs the human in a world. Consideration, then, of the happening, of entering the world, creative experience. This essay seeks to consider the relationship between the image and the body via the visionary discourse of the mystics, because their writings question and lend shape to a large number of formulae of thought that can help us better understand the questions facing us today. Let us imagine that the mystics made of their body a frontier or a support where what by definition has no place could take place. Place: part of space occupied by a body (Newton), the boundary of a containing object (Aristotle). This then is what is addressed here, a question of boundaries.</p> Julián Santos Guerrero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 6 13 10.2298/FID1901006S Making Images Talk: Picasso’s Minotauromachy <p>We can say that Picasso’s images speak to us, and, as writing, speak to us from that space in which any text – far from being reduced to a single sense – “disseminates” its “truths”. Using the figure and the story of the Minotaur, Picasso devoted himself to one of the great themes of his pictorial work. The word “labyrinth” connotes, to the European mind, Greece, Knossos, Dedalus, Ariadne and the Minotaur. However, the Greek formula already represents a mythic and poetic outcome thoroughly developed from an imagery forged in the remotest eras of our evolution. The relationship between the image, the spiral, and the word, labyrinth is also linked to the perception of a drilled earth, excavated, with numberless tortuous tunnels which, in our imagination, provoke concern because they lead to the world of the <em>inferi</em>, the unknown depths of the realms of the dead. Juan Larrea, a little-known essayist in the sphere of philosophical studies, although, from the outset of international renown for Picasso’s work, he gives what is perhaps the best interpretation of <em>Guernica </em>and consequently also sheds much light on the engravings immediately preceding the execution of this painting, the <em>Minotauromachy </em>among them. The artist is not a prophet. He is not foreseeing what the future holds for humanity, but he does possess a heightened sensitivity that drives him to minutely scrutinise the conditions of the time that he has had to live, and he has a transforming eye for the symbols that constitute the deepest threads in the fabric of his culture.</p> Ana María Leyra Soriano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 19 29 10.2298/FID1901019L Are Musical Works Sound Structures? <p>This paper is about the dilemma raised against musical ontology by Roger Scruton, in his <em>The Aesthetics of Music</em>: either musical ontology is about certain mind-independent “things” (sound structures) and so <em>music </em>is left out of the picture, or it is about an “intentional object” and so its puzzles are susceptible of an arbitrary answer. I argue the dilemma is merely apparent and deny that musical works can be identified with sound structures, whether or not conceived as abstract entities. The general idea is this: both Platonism and nominalism about musical works are a kind of fetishism: musical works are not “things”, in Danto’s sense of “mere real things”; they rather involve complex relationships between objects, events, and different kinds of functional properties. For this, I draw on Levinson and Howell’s notion of <em>indication</em>, combined with Searle’s approach to institutional reality.<em>.. </em>with a little twist of my own.</p> Vitor Guerreiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 36 53 10.2298/FID1901036G Musical Works’ Repeatability, Audibility and Variability: A Dispositional Account <p>This paper is devoted to face recent views in the ontology of music that reject that musical works are repeatable in musical performances. It will be observed that musical works’ repeatability implies that they are audible and variable in their performances. To this extent, the aim here is to show that repeatability, audibility and variability are ontologically substantive features of musical works’ nature. The thesis that will be defended is that repeatability, audibility and variability are dispositional non-aesthetic properties of musical works. The plausibility of the dispositional account of musical works’ repeatability, audibility and variability will lead us to the conclusion that they are ontologically substantive features of musical works’ nature, and consequently, any suitable explanation of the ontology of musical works must not ignore them.</p> Nemesio García-Carril Puy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 54 72 10.2298/FID1901054G The Ontology of Rock Music: Recordings, Performances and The Synthetic View <p>This paper discusses the state-of-the-art dispute over the ontological question of rock music: what is the work of art, or the central work-kind, of rock music, if any? And, is the work of rock music ontologically distinct from the work of classical music, which is the only musical tradition whose ontology is vastly studied? First, I distinguish between two levels of inquiry in musical ontology: the fundamental level and the higher-order level, in which comparative ontology – the project in which someone engages by considering that there is ontological variety among works of distinct musical traditions – falls. After addressing two general questions about rock music, I turn to Theodore Gracyk’s ontological account of rock music, according to which the primary focus of critical attention in rock music are recordings, or recorded tracks. This view has the consequence that ‘recordings’ is a fundamental concept of philosophy of music, necessary for us to understand rock music. Stephen Davies objected that Gracyk’s account fails to assign appropriate value to a valuable practice with which rock audiences are committed, live performance, and argued that the works of rock music are of the ontological kind <em>for studio performance</em>. Finally, Andrew Kania synthetized both views: rock recorded tracks are at the centre of rock as an art form, thus being the rock works. For, different reasons, none of these views is deemed satisfactory.</p> Hugo Luzio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 73 82 10.2298/FID1901073L In the Defence of Musical Meaning <p>&nbsp;This paper is about the musical meaning and its relation to verbal meaning. My aim is to show that musical meaning should be sharply differentiated from the verbal one, that it should not be understood as a subspecies of verbal meaning, or as a meaning of a verbal sort whatsoever. I will address this issue starting with the sounds of music and language, and working my way up from those: by comparing these sounds and the way they relate to their meanings, I will show that musical sounds are strongly connected with musical meanings, that they have token-like qualities. Resulting from this is a suggestion to redefine the way we use the concepts of meaning and articulation, so that they would allow for the concept of non-verbal, musical meaning. Additionally, my suggestion is that musical meaning <em>per se </em>should be differentiated from the non-musical meanings music can communicate and convey – one does not exclude the other.</p> Una Popović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 30 1 83 98 10.2298/FID1901083P The Interface of the Universal: On Hegel’s Concept of the Police <p>The article provides a tentative reading of Hegel’s police as a concept that constitutes a crucial test for the rationality of Hegel’s state and that actually played a very important role in the formation of his model of rationality. It starts by considering some significant changes in Hegel’s approach to the subject in the Jena period, especially in reference to Fichte and Spinoza; then, it presents Hegel’s conception of the police as the interface of the universal in his mature political philosophy, together with his treatment of the disturbing problem of poverty and the rabble; and to conclude, it adds some general remarks on Hegel’s police, then and now.</p> Zdravko Kobe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 101 121 10.2298/FID1901101K Altruism in Behavioural, Motivational and Evolutionary Sense <p>&nbsp;This paper discusses the relations between three forms of altruism: behavioural, evolutionary and motivational. Altruism in a behavioural sense is an act that benefits another person. It can range from volunteering to a charity and helping a neighbour, to giving money to a non-profit organisation or donating blood. People often dedicate their material and nonmaterial resources for the benefit of others to gain psychological, social and material benefits for themselves. Thus, their altruistic acts are driven by egoistic motivation. Also, the final goal of an altruistic act may be the increase in the welfare of a group or adherence to a certain moral principle or a social norm. However, at least sometimes, the welfare of others is the ultimate goal of our actions, when our altruistic acts are performed from altruistic motivation. In evolutionary sense, altruism means the sacrifice of reproductive success for the benefit of other organisms. According to evolutionary theories, behaviour which promotes the reproductive success of the receiver at the cost of the actor is favoured by natural selection, because it is either beneficial for the altruist in the long run, or for his genes, or for the group he belongs to. However, altruism among people emerges as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behaviours. Not only do we benefit the members of our own group, but we are capable of transcending our tribalistic instincts and putting the benefit of strangers at our own personal expense as our ultimate goal.</p> Bojana Radovanović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 122 134 10.2298/FID1901122R Collective Intentionality and Autism: Against the Exclusion of the “Social Misfits” <p>The paper aims to shed light on Searle’s notion of collective intentionality (CI) as a primitive phenomenon shared by all humans. The latter could be problematic given that there are individuals who are unable to grasp collective intentionality and fully collaborate within the framework of “we-intentionality”. Such is the case of individuals with autism, given that the lack of motivation and skills for sharing psychological states with others is one of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The paper will argue that exclusion of individuals with autism is not a threat for Searle’s notion of collective intentionality, as the notion can be read as merely a biological disposition that all human beings share. Furthermore, the paper proposes the extension of Searle’s concept of CI so it can include behaviors of individuals who have the disposition towards CI, but which was not evolved through ontogenesis; namely, for individuals with autism.</p> Kristina Lekić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 135 148 10.2298/FID1901135L Belgrade 1968 Protests and the Post-Evental Fidelity: Intellectual and Political Legacy of the 1968 Student Protests in Serbia <p>Even though Belgrade student protests emerged and ended abruptly after only seven days in June of 1968, they came as a cumulative point of a decade-long accumulated social dissatisfaction and antagonisms, as well as of philosophical investigations of the unorthodox Marxists of the Praxis school (<em>Praksisovci</em>). It surprised the Yugoslav authorities as the first massive rebellion after WWII to explicitly criticize rising social inequality, bureaucratization and unemployment and demand free speech and abolishment of privileges. This article focuses on the intellectual destiny and legacy of the eight professors from the Faculty of Philosophy close to the Praxis school, who were identified as the protests’ instigators and subsequently expelled from the University of Belgrade due to their “ethico-political unsuitability”. Under both international and domestic pressure, they were later reemployed in a separate research unit named the Centre for Philosophy and Social Theory, where they kept their critical edge and argued for political pluralism. From the late 1980s onwards, they and their colleagues became politically active and at times occupied the highest positions in Serbia – Dragoljub Mićunović as one of the founders of the modern Democratic Party and the Speaker of the Parliament, former Serbian President and Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica and former Prime Minister late Zoran Đinđić. Still, while some members became strong anti-nationalists and anti-war activists, other embraced Serbian nationalism, therefore pivoting the intellectual split into the so called First and Second Serbia that marked Serbian society during the 1990s and remained influential to this day.</p> Aleksandar Pavlović, Mark Losoncz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 149 164 10.2298/FID1901149P Vivian Liska, German-Jewish Thought and Its Afterlife: A Tenuous Legacy, Bloomington, University of Indiana Press, 2017 <p>Vivian Liska, German-Jewish Thought and Its Afterlife: A Tenuous Legacy, Bloomington, University of Indiana Press, 2017</p> <p>Lazar Atanasković</p> Lazar Atanasković ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 167 170 Howard G. Schneiderman, Engagement and Disengagement: Class, Authority, Politics, and Intellectuals, New York, Routledge, 2018 <p>Howard G. Schneiderman, Engagement and Disengagement: Class, Authority, Politics, and Intellectuals, New York, Routledge, 2018.</p> <p>Sanja Petkovska</p> Sanja Petkovska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 171 174 Rita Chin, The Crisis of Multiculturalism in Europe: A History, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2017 <p>Rita Chin, The Crisis of Multiculturalism in Europe: A History, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2017.</p> <p>Péter Vataščin</p> Péter Vataščin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 175 177 Molly Farneth, Hegel’s Social Ethics: Religion, Conflict, and Rituals of Reconciliation, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2017 <p>Molly Farneth, Hegel’s Social Ethics: Religion, Conflict, and Rituals of Reconciliation, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 2017</p> <p>Slobodan Golubović</p> Slobodan Golubović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 178 179 Nikola Samardžić, Limes: istorijska margina i poreklo posebnosti Jugoistočne Evrope, Beograd, HERAedu, 2017 <p>Nikola Samardžić, Limes: istorijska margina i poreklo posebnosti Jugoistočne Evrope, Beograd, HERAedu, 2017</p> <p>Milivoj Bešlin</p> Milivoj Bešlin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 180 182 FROM THE ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTE <p>FROM THE ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTE</p> <p>Olga Nikolić, Deana Jovanović i Igor Cvejić</p> Olga Nikolić, Deana Jovanović i Igor Cvejić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-09 2019-03-09 30 1 185 196